Institute for the Development of Energy for African Sustainability (IDEAS)

Prof D Hildebrandt

College of Science, Engineering and Technology
School of Engineering
Department: Research
Academic Director
Tel: 011 670 9046
E-mail: hilded@unisa.ac.za

Qualifications

B.Sc. Chemical Engineering (1981), University of the Witwatersrand, with Distinction
M.Sc. Chemical Engineering (1983), University of the Witwatersrand
Ph.D. Chemical Engineering (1989), University of the Witwatersrand


NRF Rating

B1

Currently teaching

Prof. Diane Hildebrandt is a Director of the Institute for the Development of Energy for African Sustainability (IDEAS) and a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of South Africa. She is also a Member of the Council of the University of Johannesburg. She is a B1 rated researcher by the NRF. She is also the Director of the newly formed International Laboratory for New Energy at  the Hebei University of Science and Technology (HBUST), China. She was previously the South African Research Chair of Sustainable Process Engineering and a co-director of the Centre of Material and Process Synthesis (COMPS) at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa from 2005 to 2013.

Fields of academic interests

One of the largest challenges facing the world currently is how to continue to supply energy to society, while decreasing the emissions of carbon dioxide. We have to decrease these emissions, if we are to reduce the impact of global warming. The effects of global warming will put severe pressure on communities, and the predications are that the poorest will be most adversely affected. Some of the forecasts suggest that these pressures will lead to revolutions and war - not an inheritance that we wish to leave to our children. It is essential that we solve this problem quickly while meeting the energy needs of society.

We have many people  both in South Africa and other developing countries, that do not have access to energy and who need accessible energy  in order to improve their standards of living. Governments need to plan to supply this increased demand for energy, while simultaneously  trying to reduce the impact of on the environment. The financial and environmental burden of building more power stations to generate electricity is prohibitive and governments in developing countries often cannot secure the funding or pay the loans back to put in this infrastructure in place.

A more local, but equally serious challenge, is that there is a very high unemployment rate in South Africa, and this problem is common to many other developing countries.  This problem causes poverty and  even social unrest.  We at the same time, also have waste from households and industries that pollutes the environment, and which is expensive to dispose of in a safe way. However, this apparently bleak scenario offers opportunities to us.  A theme that runs through my research is how to utilize these  carbon containing wastes and convert them to fuel and electricity in order to  supply energy and jobs to communities while cleaning up the environment.

To this end my research focuses on all the key elements needed to make such a waste to energy  technology work, namely process synthesis, reactor and separation system  synthesis, Fischer Tropsch and biotechnology.  In particular we are researching use of biological processes for biogas production and water clean-up.

Field of Specialisation

Chemical Reactor Optimisation

There are many types of chemical reactor used in practice. An important question is given the kinetics of a reaction system what is the best reactor system to use to optimise some objective. It could not be solved by standard optimisation techniques because of the difficulty of handling mixing which is essentially a discontinuous function. This was then an unsolved problem in chemical reactor theory until I working with Prof David Glasser, then my PhD supervisor, developed a new method for optimising chemical reactors called the Attainable Region (AR) method that could handle these discontinuities. This method is based on graphical ideas and so can readily be taught via simple examples. The work has been widely cited and has now become part of the standard methods described in modern textbooks on chemical reactor theory and is taught in many undergraduate and postgraduate courses. We have also worked on devising methods for solving these problems using the AR method both graphically and numerically. I have written a textbook on the  AR method which has been published by Wiley

Comminution

Comminution is a very important operation in the mineral processing industry particularly as in order to extract minerals from rock it has to be broken up into fine particles. This is a very energy intensive process. I and Prof David Glasser realised that particle break down systems could be described as reaction type systems where the kinetics are essentially the breakdown rates of particles of various sizes. Thus all the power of the AR methods could be brought to bear on these processes. Much experimental work on various ores has been done and it has been shown that by controlling the comminution there can be significant improvements in the product specifications (amount of particles in the desired size range) and the energy required to do this. Work is continuing in this area with contact being made with industry to see how these ideas can be implemented in practice.

Column Profile Maps

Distillation is one of the most common methods of separation in the chemical industry but it is very energy intensive. There was a need for new methods to design distillation systems to be more energy efficient. To help solve this problem I and Prof David Glasser developed a new method for distillation system design called the Column Profile Map (CPM) method. This has been described as “one of the three most important developments in distillation over the last decade”, and is able to help to synthesise and design more efficient distillation systems. As this method is also graphical in nature it can also easily be taught to both undergraduates and postgraduates and a text book by them us recently appeared (Daniel Beneke, Mark Peters, Diane Hildebrandt and David Glasser. (2013) Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps. Wiley New Jersey). These ideas are not only useful for distillation but can also be applied to membrane separation systems and a book has also appeared (Mark Peters, David Glasser, Diane Hildebrandt and Shehzaad Kauchali. (2011) Membrane Process Design Using Residue Curve Maps. Wiley New Jersey)

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

The Fischer-Tropsch reaction is very important industrially as it is used to make synthetic fuels from coal, oil and as now envisaged, organic wastes. I and Prof David Glasser have studied this very complex reaction over the last twenty years. While this reaction has been studied for over 80 years there is still much mystery about it and there are many unexplained phenomena. We have devised novel experiments to try to understand what are the difficulties associated with this system. We have ascertained that rather than viewing it as a reaction alone it needs to rather be viewed as a reactive distillation type system. Because of the need to take into account vapour-liquid effects with a very complex product slate this can lead to very complex behaviour such as found in practice. Furthermore we have found evidence that suggests there is an olefin equilibrium that also needs to be taken into account. The vapour-liquid effects can also lead to the complex heat transfer phenomena that we have found in experiments in tubes of different sizes and with different catalysts. This knowledge and experience have been put to use to design build and commission a successful pilot plant to turn syngas into synfuel for the Golden Nest company in Baoji China. Furthermore a successful demonstration plant to make synfuel from syngas from underground coal gasification (a world first) was designed for LincEnergy in Chinchilla Australia. We are currently working on building small-scale modular units to use organic feedstocks (eg agricultural waste, municipal solid waste and medical waste) to supply fuel and electricity to local areas.

Process Synthesis

My and Prof David Glasser’s most recent work has been on Process Synthesis, a new way, using fundamental thermodynamics, to design process flow-sheets for chemical plants in order to, for instance, minimise carbon dioxide emissions and improve the efficient use of raw materials. Invited articles on this topic appeared in Science and the American Institution of Chemical Engineers Journal in 2009 and a book is in preparation. Classically chemical engineers have chosen the flow-sheet for a plant based on the experience and the ingenuity of the designer and then the individual units designed using for instance a package such as Aspen Plus. The question then remains how good was the original flow-sheet and could it have been chosen better? Here the basic idea is one would like to synthesise the flow-sheet based on fundamental principles to optimise some objective such a making synfuel from organic waste while minimising carbon dioxide emissions. There are essentially three principles that can be used to synthesise flow-sheets, these are an overall mass balance, a constraint called the energy balance and another which is essentially a work balance. The idea is that the feed materials have chemical potential and to make the most efficient plant we need to conserve this chemical potential in the products, whether they are chemicals or direct work outputs such as electricity. To be able to do this we have invented the gh plot (Gibbs Free Energy vs Enthalpy). This is a two-dimensional plot no matter how complex the process and can be used to represent all possible processes including their efficiencies. Using the gh plot we are able to synthesise processes to satisfy all the constraints we need to apply that have the highest efficiencies. Using this technique we have been able to come up with our small-scale modular plants which should be both efficient and cost effective.

Bio Technology

The F-T process produces large quantities of very pure carbon dioxide. With smaller modular plants one can situate algal ponds on the outskirts of the plant and grow algae. These can be used as more biomass for the plants but could also be used for aquaculture providing work and a protein source. We have a research programme to find the factors that can improve the growing rate of local algae (we have no wish to introduce exotic species). This has shown how we can increase growth rates by a factor of five.

There are some products of F-T that contaminate the water and we have been doing research that should lead to a better design of artificial wetlands to deal with these.  These ideas can also be used to clean up water contaminated with metals (as  from acid mine water drainage) and even water that is biologically contaminated.

In addition we are   looking at the fundamental thermodynamics behind digestion and other biological processes with the aim of determining the limits of performance of these systems.  It would seem that consortia of organisms work so as to maximize the lost work, and thus the products that are favoured can be  calculated from gh-plots.

Biomedical

We have worked with a biomedical engineer and come up with ways of using imaging data that are obtained from patients to better understand what the problems with the patients are. We also have developed an efficient system for removal of heparin from blood. We are also looking at modelling the kidney and the behaviour of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

Small Scale Waste to Energy Plants for Communities

Our fundamental work in Process Synthesis has enabled us to come up with a design that should be both more efficient ( produce less carbon dioxide) and less expensive than the current mega XTL plants. A mock-up of such a plant in a container was built and demonstrated at COP 17 in Durban and evoked much interest. Because of our previous practical experience in building these plants and its potential commercial implementation, we have been able to access money to build the a waste to energy pilot plant and this should be commissioned  in 2017.

The uptake of technology by communities is often very difficult and it is necessary to work with communities in order to ensure that the technology meets their needs and expectations.   To this end we have partnered with the Institute of Social and Health Sciences at UNISA  in order to engage with communities and  identify the needs  and expectations of the community for  a waste to energy system.  This is a great opportunity for engineers, social scientists and the community to work together for the benefit of the community.

We have  identified  the community of the Tembelilhe, an informal settlement, as a good place  to pilot the technology.   The community in turn have identified Early Childhood Development centres and requested that we build two units to feed electricity to these schools! We are trying to manage the community’s expectations and there have been many meetings, led by Prof Seedat of the Unisa Institute for Social and Health Sciences and his group.

The unit to be installed will use waste, normally produced by households, and turn it to electricity through a gasification process. The expected result is that the community  not only will have access to energy, but will have a cleaner environment which  will reduce the health hazard and risk of injuries associated with unmanaged waste and illegal access to electricity.

Industrial Work and Commercialisation

In 2004 I began working with Golden Nest to build a Fischer-Tropsch pilot plant in Baoji, Shaanxi, China. I headed up the team that was responsible for the conceptual design, overseeing the feasibility study done with Lurgi, the basic engineering done by KBR and the detailed engineering, done by SCIDI, China. The team was responsible for all the laboratory testing of the catalysts as well as commissioning the pilot plant. The pilot plant has successfully been commissioned and an international review committee have given its approval of the technology.

In 2005 I headed up the team that into a contract with Linc Energy, Australia, to build a Fischer-Tropsch demonstration plant to test the concept of combining the Fischer-Tropsch process with underground gasification. This is the first time this has been done in the world. The team was responsible for the conceptual design of the reactor system and also oversaw the feasibility student and basic engineering of this section. This pilot plant is has been successfully commissioned.

I headed up the team that initiated the BeauTi-fueL concept, which is a containerised plant that converts biomass to fuel and electricity. The concept was demonstrated at COP 17 in Durban and there was great interest from the South African and international governments. We have had projects in the area funded by Sasol, Anglo Platinum as well as SANERI.

We have currently entered into a partnership for commercialisation of small waste to energy plants. We are also in a partnership with an international group to design small scale Gas-to Liquid plants.

Books

  1. Peters, M., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Kauchali, S. (2011) Membrane Process Design Using Residue Curve Maps. Wiley, New Jersey, USA ISBN 978-0-470-52431-2.
  2. Beneke, D., Peters, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. Design of Distillation Systems Using Column Profile Maps. Wiley, New Jersey, USA ISBN 978-1-118-14540-1.
  3. Ming, D., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, B. and Metgzer, M.  Attainable Region Theory: An Introduction to Choosing an Optimal Reactor.  Wiley, New Jersey, USA ISBN: 978-1-119-15788-5.

Journal articles

  1. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Crowe, C.M. (1987). A Geometric Approach to Steady Flow Reactors: The Attainable Region and Optimization in Concentration Space. I&EC Res, 26 (9), 1803–1810.
  2. Peterson, D., Glasser, D., Williams, D. and Ramsden, R. (1988). Predicting the Performance of an Evaporative Condenser. ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110 (3), 748–753.
  3. Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Crowe, C.M. (1989). The Geometry of the Attainable Region Generated by Reaction and Mixing; With and Without Constraints. I&EC Res., 29 (1), 49–58.
  4. Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D.(1990). The Attainable Region and Optimal Reactor Structures. Presented at ISCRE 11, Toronto, July 1990. Published in Chem. Eng. Sci., 45 (8), 2161–2168.
  5. Young, B.D., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1992). Analysis of an Exothermic Reversible Reaction in a Catalytic Reactor with Periodic Flow Reversal. Chem. Eng. Sci., 47 (8), 1825–1837.
  6. Glasser, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1992). Optimal Mixing for Exothermic Reversible Reactions. Presented at AIChE Annual Meeting, Chicago, 1990. I&EC Res, 31 (6), 1541–1549.
  7. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Godorr, S. (1994). The Attainable Region for Segregated, Maximum Mixed and Other Reactor Models. I&EC Res., 33 (5), 1136–1144.
  8. Godorr, S., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1994). The Attainable Region for Systems with Mixing and Multiple Rate Processes: Finding Optimal Reactor Structures. Chem. Eng. J., 54 (3), 175–186.
  9. Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1994). Predicting Phase and Chemical Equilibrium using the Convex Hull of the Gibbs Free Energy. Chem. Eng. J., 54 (3), 187–197.
  10. Hildebrandt, D. and Biegler, L.T. (1995). Synthesis of Chemical Reactor Networks. Presented at FOCAPD, Snowmass, Colorado, 1994. Published in AIChE Symp. Ser., 305, 52–67.
  11. Jobson, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1995). Attainable Products of Vapour-Liquid Separation of Homogeneous Ternary Mixtures. Chem. Eng. J., 59 (1), 51–71.
  12. Fine, D.R., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Esser, J.D., Chetty, N., and Lurie, R.E. (1995). An Anatomical and Physiological Model of the Hepatic Vascular System, Journal of Applied Physiology , 79 (3), 1008–1026.
  13. Glover, G., van der Walt, T.J., Glasser, D., Prinsloo, N.M. and Hildebrandt, D. (1995). DRIFT Spectroscopy and Optimal Reflectance of Heat-Treated Coal from a Quenched Gasifier, Fuel, 74 (8), 1216–1219.
  14. Hopley, F.D., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1996). Optimal Reactor Structures for Exothermic Reversible Reactions with Complex Kinetics. Presented at ICSRE 14, Brugge (1996), Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (10), 2399–2407.
  15. Jobson, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1996). Variables Indicating the Cost of Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium Separation Processes. Chem. Eng. Sci., 51 (21), 4749–4757.
  16. Jewell, L., Sokolovskii, V.D., Coville, N.J., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1996). A Catalytic Trap for Low-Temperature Complete NO Reduction in Oxygen-Rich Media. Chem. Commun, 17, 2081–2082.
  17. Sun, Q., Young, B, Williams, D.F., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1996). A Periodic Flow Reversal Reactor: An Infinitely Fast Switching Model and a Practical Proposal for its Implementation. Presented at USPC-2, St Louis, September (1995), Canadian J. Of Chem. Eng., 74 (5), 760–765.
  18. Feinberg, M. and Hildebrandt, D. (1997). Optimal Reactor Design from a Geometric Viewpoint: 1. Universal Properties of the Attainable Region. Chem. Eng. Sci., 52 (10), 1637–1665.
  19. Nicol, W., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1997). Process Synthesis for Reaction Systems with Cooling via Finding the Attainable Region. Comp. and Chem. Eng., 21, S35-S40. Presented at PSE ‘97/Escape‘7, Trondheim.
  20. Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1997). Reactor and Process Synthesis. Comp. and Chem. Eng., 21, S775–S783. Plenary Paper Presented at PSE ‘97/Escape‘7, Trondheim.
  21. Sokolovskii, V.D., Jeannot, J.C., Coville, N.J., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Makoa, M. (1997). High Yield Formation by Partial Oxidation of Methane over Co-alumina Catalysts. Natural Gas Conversion IV. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 107, 461–465.
  22. Price, J.G., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Coville, N.J. (1997). Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis: DRIFTS and SIMS Surface Investigation of Co and CO/Ru on Titania Supports. Natural Gas Conversion IV. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 107, 243–-248.
  23. McGregor, C. Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1997). Process Synthesis for a Reactive Distillation System Using Attainable Region Results. Distillation and Absorption ‘97, Edited by R. Darton, Trans. IChemE., 142 (1), 187–196.
  24. Chronis, T. Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1997). A Simple, Reasonably Accurate Method for Measuring Residue Curves and the Associated VLE. Distillation and Absorption ‘97, Edited by R. Darton, Trans. IChemE., 142 (2), 663–674.
  25. Kaitano, R., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1997). A Laboratory Study of a Reactive Surface Layer for the Prevention of Spontaneous Combustion. Reviews in Engineering Geology. Geological Society of America. Presented at the 8th National Meeting of SAIChE, Cape Town, 85.
  26. Nicol, W., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1998). Crossing Reaction Equilibrium in an Adiabatic Reactor System. Developments in Chemical Engineering and Mineral Processing, 6, 41–54.
  27. McGregor, C., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1998). Process Synthesis of a Reactor-Separator -Recycle System via an Attainable Region Approach. Developments in Chemical Engineering and Mineral Processing, 6. 21–40.
  28. Curtis, V., Nicolaides, C.P., Coville, N.J., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1999). The Effect of Sulfur on Supported Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts. Catalysis Today, 49 (1–3), 33–40.
  29. McGregor,C. Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1999). The Attainable Region and Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. Ind. Eng, Chem. Res,. 38 (3), 652–659.
  30. Godorr, S., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and McGregor, C. (1999). Choosing Optimal Control Policies using the Attainable Region Approach. Ind. Eng, Chem. Res,. 38 (3), 639–651.
  31. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2000). “Costing” Distillation Systems From Residue Curve Based Designs. Presented at PSE 2000. Comp. and Chem. Eng., 24 (2–7), 1275–1280.
  32. Kauchali, S., McGregor, C. and Hildebrandt, D. (2000). Binary Distillation Revisited using the Attainable Region. Presented at PSE 2000. Comp. and Chem. Eng., 24, 231–237.
  33. Nicol, W., Hernier, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2001). The Attainable Region and Process Synthesis: Reaction Systems with External Cooling and Heating. The effect of Relative Cost or Reactor Volume to Heat Exchange Area on the Optimal Process Layout. Chem. Eng. Sci., 56 (1), 173–191.
  34. Nicol, W., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2002). The Cost of Crossing Reaction Equilibrium in a System that is Overall Adiabatic. Comp. and Chem. Eng., 26 (6), 803–809.
  35. Kauchali, S., Rooney, W.C., Biegler, L.T., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2002). Linear Programming Formulations for Attainable Region Analysis, Chem. Eng. Sci., 57 (11), 2015–2028.
  36. Tapp M., Kauchali S., Hausberger B., McGregor C., Hildebrandt D. and Glasser D. (2003). An experimental simulation of distillation column concentration profiles using a batch apparatus, Chem. Eng. Sci., 58, 479–486.
  37. Kauchali, S., Hausberger, B. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, D. and Biegler, L.T. (2004). Automating Reactor Network Synthesis; Finding a Candidate Attainable Region for Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Reaction. Comp. & Chem. Eng., 28 (1–2), 149–160
  38. Tapp, M., Holland, S.T., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2004). Column Profile Maps 1: Derivation and Interpretation; Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 43 (2), 364–374.
  39. Tapp, M., Holland, S.T., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2004) Column Profile Maps 2: Singular Points and Phase Diagram Behavior in Ideal and Non-Ideal Systems. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 43 (14), 3590–3603.
  40. Milne, D., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2004). The Application of the Attainable Region Concept to the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of 1-Butene in Inert Porous Membrane Reactors. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., .43 (8),1827–1831.
  41. Jewell, L., Fasemore, O.A., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Lafras, H., Van Wyk, N. and Boyd, C. (2004). Towards zero waste production in the paint industry. Presented at the Biannual Conference of Water Institute of South Africa, Cape Town, May 2004. Water SA, 30 (5), 95–99.
  42. Holland, S.T., Tapp, M., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B. (2004). Novel Separation System Design Using “Moving Triangles”. Comp. & Chem. Eng., 29 (1), 181–189.
  43. Ngwenya, T., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, Coville, N. and Mukoma, P. (2005). Fischer-Tropsch Results and their Analysis for Reactor Synthesis. Ind. Eng. Chem Res, 44(16), 5987–5994.
  44. Mulopo, J.L., Kauchali, S., Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2005). Experimental Simulation of Distillation Column Concentration Profiles using a Batch Apparatus: Columns Stripping Section. Chem. Eng. Sci.., 60 (24), 6815–6823.
  45. Patel, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2005). Thermodynamics Analysis of Processes I: Implications of Work Integration. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44 (10), 3529–3537.
  46. Bahome, M.C., Jewell, L., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Coville, N.J, (2005). Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron catalysts support on carbon nanotubes. Applied Catalysis A: General, 287 (1), 60–67.
  47. Modise, T, Tapp, M. Glasser, D and Hildebrandt, D. (2005). Can the operating leaves of the distillation column really be expanded? Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44 (19), 7511–7519.
  48. Milne, D., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2006). Reactor selection: Plug Flow or Continuously Stirred Tank? CEP, 102 (4), 34–37.
  49. Milne, D., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2006) Graphically assess a reactor’s characteristics, CEP, 102 (3), 46-51.
  50. Milne, D., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2006). The oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane in a fixed-bed reactor an in an inert porous membrane reactor- maximizing the production of butenes and butadiene. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45 (8), 2661–2671.
  51. Mukoma, P., Glasser D., and Hildebrandt D. (2006). A process synthesis approach to investigate the effect of the probability of chain growth and conversion on the efficiency of Fischer Tropsch synthesis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 45 (17), 5928–5935.
  52. Varghese, M., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Rubin, D., and Crowther, N. (2006). Efficiency of Polymer Beads in the Removal of Heparin: Towards the development of a Novel Reactor. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes and Biotechnology, 34 ( 4), 419–433
  53. Khumalo, N., Hausberger, B., Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2006). The Application of the Attainable Region Analysis in Comminution, Chem. Eng. Sci., 61 (18), 5969–5980.
  54. Peters, M., Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2006). Derivation and Properties of Membrane Residue Curve Maps. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45 (26), 9080–9087.
  55. Jalama, K., Coville, N.J., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Jewell, L. (2007). Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Co/TiO2: Effect of Ethanol Addition, Fuel, 86 (1–2), 73–80.
  56. Mpela, A., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Scurrell, M.S and Hutchings, G.J. (2007). Low-pressure methanol and dimethyl-ether synthesis from syngas over gold-based catalysts, Gold Bulletin, 40 (3), 219–224.
  57. Mukoma, P., Hildebrandt D., Glasser, D. and Coville, N. (2007). Synthesizing a Process from Experimental results: A Fischer-Tropsch Case Study. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 46 (1), 156–167. Presented at CATSA, Durban, November 2003.
  58. Khumalo, N., Glasser, D., and Hildebrandt, D and Hausberger, B. (2007). An Experimental Validation of a Specific Energy Based Approach for Comminution. Chem. Eng Sci., 62 (10), 2765–2776.
  59. Bahome, M.C., Jewell, L.L., Padayachy, K, Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Datye, A.K., Coville, N.J. (2007). Fe-Ru Small Particle Bimetallic Catalysts Supported On Carbon Nanotubes For Use In Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Appl. Catal. A-Gen, 328 (2), 243–251.
  60. Jalama, K., Coville, N.J., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Jewell, L.L. (2007). Effect of Cobalt Carboxylate Precursor Chain Length On Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt/Alumina Catalysts. Applied Catalysis A-General, 326 (2), 164–172.
  61. Jalama, K.; Coville, N.J.; Hildebrandt, D.; Glasser, D.; Jewell, L.L.; Anderson, J.A.; Taylor, S.; Enache, D. and Hutchings, G.J. (2007). Effect of the Addition of Au on Co/Tio2 Catalyst For The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction. Topics in Catalysis 44 (1–2), 129–136.
  62. Modise, T., Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2007). Experimental measurement of the saddle node region in a distillation column profile map by using a batch apparatus. Presented at Distillation and Absorption, London, 2006. IChemE Symposium Series No. 152, 431–439. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 85 (A1), 24–30.
  63. Steyn, J., Pattrick, G., Scurrell, M. Hildebrandt, D., Raphulu, M.C. and van der Lingen E. (2007). On-line deactivation of Au/TiO2 for CO oxidation in H2-rich gas streams. Catalysis Today, 122, 254–259.
  64. Patel, B., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B. (2007). The Synthesis and Integration of Chemical Processes from a Mass, Energy and Entropy Perspective. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 46 (25), 8756–8766.
  65. Metzger, M., Glasser, B., Glasser, D., Hausberger, B., and Hildebrandt, D. (2007). Teaching Reaction Engineering Using the Attainable Region, Chem. Eng. Ed. 258–264.
  66. Mulopo, J.L., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2008). Reactive Residue Curve Map Topology: Continuous Distillation Column with Non Reversible Kinetics, Comp.& Chem. Eng., 32 (3), 622–629.
  67. Peters, M.; Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D. And Glasser, D. (2008). Application of Membrane Residue Curve Maps to Batch and Continuous Processes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 7 (47), 2361–2376.
  68. Khumalo, N., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2008). Improving Comminution Efficiency using Classification: An Attainable Region Approach. Powder Technol, 187 (3), 252–259.
  69. Varghese, M.S., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. Rubin, D.M. Crowther, N.J. (2008). The Effect of Poly-L-Lysine/Alginate Bead Membrane Characteristics on the Absorption of Heparin. Artif. Cells, Blood Substi. Biotechno., 37 (1), 13–22.
  70. Steyn, J., Pattrick, G., Scurrell, M.S. , Hildebrandt, D. and van der Lingen, E. (2008). An unconventional Au/TiO2 PROX system for complete removal of CO from non-reformate hydrogen. Gold Bulletin, 41 (8), 318–325.
  71. Milne, A.D., Seodigeng, T, Glasser, D. Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2009). Candidate Attainable Regions for the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-Butane using the Recursive Constant Control (RCC) Policy Algorithm. Ind. Eng Chem. Res. 48, (11), 5211–5222.
  72. Metzger, M.J., Glasser, D., Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, B.J. (2009). Use of the Attainable Region Analysis to Optimize Particle Breakage in a Ball Mill, Chem. Eng. Sci, 64 (17), 3766–3777.
  73. Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Hausberger, B., Patel, B. and Glasser, B.J. (2009). Producing Transportation Fuels with Less Work. Science, 323, 1680–1681.
  74. Glasser, D. Hildebrandt, D., Hausberger, B., Patel, B. and Glasser, B.J (2009). Systems Approach to Reducing Energy Usage and Carbon Dioxide Usage. AIChE J. 55 (9), 2202–2207.
  75. Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D and Patel, B. (2009). Reduction of CO2 emissions from CTL processes: Use of a novel FT based chemistry; Advances in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts and Catalysis, Editors: Davis and Occelli, CRC Press; Chapter 17, 317–329.
  76. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Hausberger, B., Patel, B. and Glasser, B.J. (2009). Attainable Chemical Processes: A Systems Approach. Chem. Eng. Prog. 105 (9), 24–24.
  77. Seodigeng, T. Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2009). Recursive Constant Control Policy Algorithm for Attainable Regions Analysis. Comput.Chem. Eng. 33 (1), 309–320.
  78. Holland, ST; Abbas, R.; Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2010) Complex Column Design by Application of Column Profile Map Techniques: Sharp-Split Petlyuk Column Design. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49, 327–349.
  79. Milne, D., Seodigeng, T., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. And Hausberger, B. (2010). The Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-Butane in a Differential Side-Stream. Catalysis Today., 156, 237-245.
  80. Hildebrandt, D., Beneke, D., Abbas, R., Holland, S.T., Very, M. and Glasser, D. (2010). Column Profile Maps as a Tool for Synthesizing Complex Column Configurations. Presented at 7th International Conference on the Foundations of Computer-Aided Process Design, Jun 07-12, 2009, Breckenridge, CO; Comput. Chem. Eng. 34, 1487–1496.
  81. Patel, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2010). An Overall Thermodynamic View of Processes: Comparison of Fuel Producing Processes, Chem. Eng. Res., 844-860.
  82. Sarkar, A., Jacobs, G., Mukoma, P., Glasser, G., Hildebrandt, D., Coville, N and Davis, B. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Comparison of the Effect of Co-Fed Water on the Catalytic Performance of CO Catalysts Supported on Wide-Pore and Narrow-Pore Alumina; Advances in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts and Catalysis, Editors: Davis and Occelli, CRC Press, Chapter 14, 243–268.
  83. Ngigi, G.K., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2010). Adapting Process Unit Relations in Experimental Data Weighting Procedures: A Phase Equilibrium Case Study, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49, 1975–1981.
  84. Sempuga, B. C., Hildebrandt, D., Patel, B., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B. (2010). Classification of Chemical Processes: A Graphical Approach to Process Synthesis to Improve Reactive Process Work Efficiency, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, 8227–8237.
  85. Xiaowei Zhu, Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, D. and Xiaojun Lu. (2010). A Study of Radial Heat Transfer in a Tubular Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Reactor. ISCRE 21, Philadelphia, USA June 2010. Ind. Eng Chem. Res. 49, 10682-10688.
  86. Ming, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2010). A Revised Method of Attainable Region Construction Utilizing Rotated Bounding Hyperplanes. Presented at ISCRE 2010, Philadelphia, USA, June 2010 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, 10549-10557.
  87. Yao, Y., Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, D. and X. Liu. (2010) Fischer –Tropsch Synthesis Using H2/CO/CO2 Syngas Mixtures over a Cobalt Catalyst. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, 11062-11066.
  88. Lu, X., Hildebrandt, D., Liu, X. and Glasser, D.(2010) Making Sense of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Reaction: Start-up. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 49, 9753-9758.
  89. Ngubevana, L., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2011) Introducing novel graphical techniques to assess gasification. Energy Conv. & Management , 52, 547-563.
  90. Tabrizi, M.T.F., Glasser, D., and Hildebrandt, D. (2011) Wastewater Treatment of Reactive Dyestuffs by Ozonation in a Semi-Batch Reactor. Chem. Eng. J., 166, 662-668.
  91. Kalala J., Coville, N.J., Xiong, H., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Taylor, S., Carley, A., Anderson, J.A. and Hutchings, G.J. (2011) A comparison of Au/Co/Al2O3 and Au/Co/SiO2 catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Applied Catalysis A: General., 395, 1-9.
  92. Sempuga, B.C., Hildebrandt, D., Patel, B. and Glasser, D. (2011) Work to Chemical Processes: The Relationship between Heat, Temperature, Pressure and Process Complexity. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 50, 8603-8619.
  93. Katubilwa, F. M., Moys M.H., Glasser, D., and Hildebrandt, D. (2011) An Attainable Region Analysis of the Effect of Ball Size on Milling, Powder Technology, 210, 36-46.
  94. Felbab, N., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2011) A New Method of Locating all Pinch Point Loci and Distillation Boundaries. Comp & Chem. Eng., 35, 1072-1087.
  95. Beneke, D. A., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2011) On Column Profile Maps: An Analysis of Sharp Splits. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 50, 6331-6342.
  96. Lu, X., Zhu, X., Hildebrandt, D., Liu, X. and Glasser, D.(2011) A New Way to Look at Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Using Flushing Experiments. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 50, 4359-4365.
  97. Masuku, C.M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2011) The Role of Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium in Fisher-Tropsch Product Distribution., Chem. Eng. Sci. 66, 6254-6263.
  98. Yao, Y., Liu, X., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2011) Fischer –Tropsch Synthesis Using H2/CO/CO2 Syngas Mixtures over a Iron Catalyst. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50, 11002-11012.
  99. Sheridan C. M., Glasser D. and Hildebrandt D., Petersen, J and Rohwer, J. (2011) An Annual and Seasonal Characterisation of Winery Effluent in South Africa. S.A. J of Enology and Viticulture, 32, 1-8.
  100. Kativu, E., Hildebrandt, D., Matambo, T. and Glasser, D. (2012) Effects of CO2 on South African fresh water microalgae growth. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy. 31, 24-28.
  101. Masuku, C.M., Shafer, W.D., Ma, W., Gnanamani, M.K., Jacobs, G., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Davis, B.H. (2012) Variation of Residence Time with Chain Length for Products in a Slurry-Phase Fischer-Tropsch Reactor. J. Cat. 287, 93-101.
  102. Masuku, C.M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2012) Olefin Pseudo-Equilibrium in the Fischer-Tropsch Reaction. Chem. Eng. J., 181, 667-676.
  103. Masuku, C.M., Ma, W., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Davis, B.H. (2012) A Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Thermodynamic Model for a Fischer-Tropsch Reactor. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 314, 38-45.
  104. Liu, X., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2012) Environmental Impacts of Electric Vehicles in South Africa. S.A. J of Sci., 108, 91-96.
  105. Sempuga, B.C., Patel, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2012) Efficient Combustion: A Process Synthesis Approach to Improve the Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Stations. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,51, 9061-9077.
  106. Mbuyi, K.G., Scurrel, M.S., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2012) Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Dimethylether Over Gold-based Catalysts. Topics in Catalysis. 55,771-781.
  107. Yao, Y., Liu, X., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2012) Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using H-2/CO/CO2 syngas mixtures: A comparison of paraffin to olefin ratios for iron and cobalt based catalysts. Applied Catalysis A- General, 433, 58-68.
  108. Metzger, M.J., Desai, S.P., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2012) Using the attainable region analysis to determine the effect of process parameters on breakage in a ball mill. AICHE J., 58, 2665-2673.
  109. Glasser, D. Hildebrandt, D., Liu, x., Lu, X. and Masuku, C.M. (2012) Recent advances in understanding the Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) reaction. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 1 , 296-302, Elsevier.
  110. Lu, X., Hildebrandt, D., Liu, X. and Glasser, D. (2012) A Thermodynamic Approach to Olefin Product Distribution in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,51: 16544-16551.
  111. Ming, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2012) A Graphical Method of Improving the Production Rate from Batch Reactors  Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,51:13562-13573
  112. Yao, Y.; Liu, X.; Hildebrandt, D.; and Glasser, D.(2012) The effect of CO2 on a cobalt-based catalyst for low temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Chem. Eng. J.l. 19,: 318-327
  113. Okonye, L.U., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2012) Attainable Regions for a Reactor: Application of D H-D G plot  Chem. Eng Res. and Des., 90, 1590-1609.
  114. Asiedu, N., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. (2013) Estimating Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Quantities of Exothermic Reversible Processes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52,(23), 7630-7639.
  115. Beneke, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2013) Feed Distribution in Distillation: Assessing Benefits and Limits with Column Profile Maps and Rigorous Process Simulation. AIChE J., 59, (5), 1668-1683.
  116. Chimwani, N., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Metzger, M. and Mulenga, F. (2013) Determination of the milling parameters of a platinum group minerals ore to optimize product size distribution for flotation purposes. Minerals Engineering, 43-44, 67-78
  117. Felbab, N., Patel, B., El-Halwagi, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2013) Vapor recompression for efficient distillation. 1. A new synthesis perspective on standard configurations. AIChE J., 59, (8), 2977-2992.
  118. Lu, X., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2013) Study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a tank reactor at CSTR and batch modes with TiO2 supported cobalt catalyst. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 245.
  119. Metzger, M., Glasser, B., Patel, B., Fox, J., Sempuga, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2013) Liquid Fuels from Alternative Carbon Sources Minimizing Carbon Dioxide Emissions. AIChE Journal, 59, (6), 2063-2078.
  120. Ming, D., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2013) Application of attainable region theory to batch reactors. Chem. Eng. Sci., 99, 203-214.
  121. Seedat, N., Parag, P., Govender, D., Peters, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2013) Experimental Measurement of Membrane Residue Curve Maps. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52 (32), 11142-11150.
  122. Tabrizi, M., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D., (2013) Ozonation of Textile Reactive Red 198 Dye in a CSTR. Journal of Advanced Oxidation Technologies, 16 (1), 159-167.
  123. Zhu, X.; Lu, X.; Liu, X.; Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D., (2013) Comparison of radial heat transfer in lab and bench scale tubular Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactors. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 245.
  124. Stacey, N. T., Peters, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2013). Synthesis of two-membrane permeation processes using residue curve maps and node classification. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52 (41), 14637-14636.
  125. Ntwampe, I. O., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2013). The effect of mixing on the treatment of paint wastewater with Fe 3 and Al 3 salts. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology 5(1), 7-16.
  126. Fox, J. A., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., and Patel, B. (2013). A graphical approach to process synthesis and its application to steam reforming. AIChE J., 59(10), 3714-3729.
  127. Ntwampe, I. O., Jewell, L. L., Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2013). The effect of water hardness on paint wastewater treatment by coagulation-flocculation. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 5(3), 47-56.
  128. Asiedu, N. , Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2013) Modeling and Simulation of Temperature Profiles in a reactive Distillation System for Esterification of Acetic Annhydride with Methanol. Chemical and Process Engineering Research, 10, 51-94.
  129. Asiedu N, Hildebrandt D, Glasser D (2013) Kinetic Modeling of the Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride at Higher Temperatures using Adiabatic Batch Reactor (Thermos-Flask). J Chem Eng Process Technol. 4, 176.
  130. Sheridan, C.M., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2013) Estimating Rate Constants of Contaminant Removal in Constructed Wetlands Treating Winery Effluent: A Comparison of Three Different Methods. Process Safety and Environmental Protection.
  131. Masuku, C., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Davis, B. (2014) Steady-state attainment period for Fischer-Tropsch products. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 245. Top. Cat., 57, 582-587.
  132. Asiedu, N. , Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2014) Batch Distillation Targets for Minimum Energy Consumption. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 53 (7), 2751-2757.
  133. Chimwani, N., Mulenga, F.K., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. And Bwalya, M.M. (2014) Scale-up of Batch Grinding Data for Simulation of Industrial Milling of Platinum Group Minerals Ore. Minerals Engineering, 63, 100-109.
  134. Zhu, X., Lu, X., Liu, X., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2014) Heat Transfer Study with and without Fischer-Tropsch Reaction in a Fixed Bed Reactor with TiO2, SiO2 and SiC supported Cobalt Catalyst. Chem. Eng. J., 247, 75-84.
  135. Sheridan, C., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2014) Turning wine (waste) into Water: Toward Technological Advances in the Use of Constructed Wetlands for Winery Effluent Treatment. AIChE J., 60 (2), 420-431.
  136. Fox, J.A., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Patel, B. And Hausberger, B. (2014) Process Flow Sheet Synthesis: Reaching Targets for Idealized Coal Gasification. AIChE Journal ,60 (9), 3258-3266.
  137. Letts, R.F.R., Rubin, D.M., Louw, R.H., Hildebrandt, D. (2014) Glomerular Protein Separation as a Mechanism for Powering Renal Concentrating Processes. (2014) arXiv:1405.5743[q-bio.TO]
  138. Chimwani, N., Mulenga, F.K., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. And Bwalya, M.M. (2015) Use of the attainable region method to simulate a full-scale ball mill with a realistic transport model, Minerals Engineering 73, 116-123
  139. Asiedu, N, Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2014) Experimental Simulation of a Two-Dimensional Attainable Region and Its Application in the Optimization of Production Rate and Process Time of an Adiabatic Batch Reactor. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53 (34), 13308-13319
  140. Masuku, C.M., Lu, X., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2015) Reactive Distillation in Conventional Fischer-Tropsch Reactors. Fuel Processing Technology, 130, 54-61.
  141. Danha, G.,  Hildebrandt, D.,  Glasser, D. and  Bhondayi, C. (2015) Application of basic process modeling in investigating the breakage behavior of UG2 ore in wet millingPowder Technology, 279, 42-48.
  142. Chimwani, N.,  Mulenga, F.K., and  D Hildebrandt. (2015) Ball size distribution for the maximum production of a narrowly-sized mill product, Accepted for publication in Powder Technology
  143. Mlasi, B., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2015) Kinetics of the Decomposition of hydrogen Peroxide in Acidic Copper Sulfate Solutions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 54 (21), 5589-5597
  144. Danha, D., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Bhondayi, C. (2015) A Laboratory Scale Application of the Attainable Region Technique on a Platinum Ore, Powder Technology. 274, 14-19.
  145. Letts, R.F.R., Rubin, D.M., Louw, R.H., Hildebrandt, D. (2015) Glomerular Protein Separation as a Mechanism for Powering Renal Concentrating Processes. Accepted for publication in Medical Hypotheses.
  146. Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Patel, B., Sempuga, B. C., & Fox, J. A. (2015). Making Processes  Work.  Accepted for publication in Computers & Chemical Engineering.
  147. Asiedu, N, Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2015) Experimental Simulation of Three-Dimensional Attainable Region for Synthesis of Exothermic Reversible Reaction: Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Case Study.  Optimization of Production Rate and Process Time of an Adiabatic Batch Reactor. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 54 (10), 2619-2626.
  148. Asiedu, N., Hildebrandt, D., & Glasser, D. (2015). Geometry and reactor synthesis: maximizing conversion of the ethyl acetate process. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 6(2), 77-83.
  149. Low, M., Glasser, D., Ming, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Matambo, T. (2015) Batch Partial Emptying and Filling To Improve the Production Rate of Algae. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 54 (50), 12492-12502
  150. Muvhiiwa, R.F., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Matambo, T. and Sheridan, C.  (2015) A thermodynamic approach toward defining the limits of biogas production. AIChE Journal,  61 (12), 4270-4276.
  151. Lu, X., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2015) Distribution between C 2 and C 3 in low temperature Fischer–Tropsch synthesis over a TiO 2-supported cobalt catalyst.  Applied Catalysis A: General, 506, 67-76.
  152. Muleja, A.A., Yao, Y.,  Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2016) Effect of feeding nitrogen to a fixed bed Fischer–Tropsch reactor while keeping the partial pressures of reactants the same. Chemical Engineering Journal,  293, 151-160
  153. Muleja, A.A., Yao, Y.,  Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2016) A study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Product distribution of the light hydrocarbons. Applied Catalysis A: General. 517, 217-226.
  154. Gorimbo, J.,  Lu, X.,  Liu, X.,   Hildebrandt, D. and  Glasser, D. (2016) A long term study of the gas phase of low pressure Fischer-Tropsch products when reducing an iron catalyst with three different reducing gases. Applied Catalysis A: General. 534, 1-11.
  155. Stacey, N.T., Peters, M., Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D., (2017) Journal of Membrane Science and Research, (3), 84-89.
  156. Louw,  R.H., Rubin, D.M., Glasser, D.,  Letts, R.F.R. and  Hildebrandt, D. (2017) Thermodynamic considerations in renal separation processes. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. 14 (1), 2
  157. Muleja, A.A., Yao, Y.,  Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2017) Variation of the Short-Chain Paraffin and Olefin Formation Rates with Time fora Cobalt Fischer–Tropsch Catalyst.  Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
  158. Hildebrandt, D., Lu, X. and Maphoto, T. (2017) South Africans pioneer heat transfer technology for conversion of waste to energy. South African Journal of Science. 113 (1-2).
  159. Danha, G., Bhondayi, C.,  Hlabangana, H., and  Hildebrandt, D. (2017) Determining the PGM bearing mineral phase in the UG2 ore, Powder Technology. 315 (2017) 236–24.
  160. Gorimbo, J., Muleja, A.,   Lu, X.,  Yao, Y.,   Liu, X.,   Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2017) Lu Plot and Yao Plot: Models To Analyze Product Distribution of Long-Term Gas-Phase Fischer−Tropsch Synthesis Experimental Data on an Iron Catalyst, Energy Fuels, (5), 5682-5690.
  161. Gorimbo, J.,  Lu, X., Liu, X.,   Hildebrandt, D.,  and  Glasser, D. (2017) A long term study of the gas phase of low pressure Fischer-Tropsch products when reducing an iron catalyst with three different reducing gases, Applied Catalysis A: General 534, 1–11.
  162. Gorimbo, J.,  Lu, X.,  Liu, X.,  Yao, Y.,  Hildebrandt, D., and  Glasser, D. (2017) Low pressure Fischer Tropsch synthesis: In-situ Oxidative Regeneration of Iron Catalysts. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Accepted, Publication Date (Web): 27 Mar 2017
  163. Muvhiiwa, R.,  Lu, R., Hildebrandt, D.,  Glasser, D., and Matambo,  T. (2017) Applying thermodynamics to digestion/gasification processes: the Attainable Region approach, J Therm Anal Calorim.

Paper presentations

  1. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Godorr, S. and Jobson, M. (1993). A Geometric Approach to Variational Optimisation : Finding the Attainable Region. 12th World Congress IFAC, Sydney, Australia, V, 37–44.
  2. Price, J.G., Coville, N.J. Glasser, D and Hildebrandt, D. (1993). An investigation into Co/Ru Bimetallic Catalysts for the Fisher Tropsch Reaction. International Conference on Catalysis and Catalytic Processing, Cape Town, 137–144.
  3. Fine, D.R., Lurie, R.E., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D., Esser, J.D. and Chetty, N. (1993). Identification of an Aorta Background for Organ Scintigraphic Deconvolution Studies. 15th Annual International Conference IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, October, San Diego. 517–518.
  4. Nicol, W., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (1998). Optimising Adiabatic Reactor Systems with Internal Heat Exchange, Presented at FOCAPD, Snowbird, Utah, July.
  5. McGregor, C., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (1998). The Use of Attainable Regions to Synthesise and Optimise Novel Multiphase Reactors. Presented at ISCRE 15, Newport Beach, September.
  6. Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, D. and McGregor C. (2000). Feed Addition Policies for Ternary Distillation Columns. Presented at FOCAPD ’99. AIChE Symposium Series No. 323, 96, 402–405.
  7. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and McGregor C. (2000). There is more to Process Synthesis than Synthesising a Process. Presented at FOCAPD ’99. AIChE Symposium Series No. 323, 96, 311–319.
  8. Hildebrandt, D. and McGregor C. (2000). A New Concept in Process Synthesis: Maximising The Average Rate. Presented at Fifth International Conference on Foundations of Computer-Aided Process Design. AIChE Symposium Series No. 323, 96, 320–323.
  9. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Mitova, E. (2001).Teaching Chemical Reactor Synthesis to undergraduates via the Attainable Region Method. Presented at 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Melbourne.
  10. Lebotse, M., Nielsen, C., Kauchali, S., Hausberger, B., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2001). Measuring VLE in a Batch Still: A Comparison of Three Methods of Operation. Presented at 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Melbourne.
  11. Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2001). Modelling Rates for Design Purposes. Presented at 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Melbourne.
  12. Holland, S.T., Tapp, M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2002). Modeling Coupled Distillation Column Sections Using Profile Maps. 35th European Symposium on Computer Aided Engineering. Editors: Grievink, J. and van Scgijndel, J. Elsevier. 211–216.
  13. Kauchali, S., Hausberger, B., Mitova, E., Hildebrandt, D and Glasser, D. (2002). Automating reactor network synthesis: Finding a candidate attainable region for water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. 35th European Symposium on Computer Aided Engineering. Editors: Grievink, J. and van Scgijndel, J. Elsevier. 217–222.
  14. Mitova, E., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. and Hausberger, B. (2003). Finding Candidates for Multidimensional Attainable Regions. Process Systems Engineering, Editors: Chen and Westerberg. 565–569.
  15. Seodigeng, T., Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Kauchali, S. (2003). DSR Algorithm for Construction of Attainable Region Structures, Process Systems Engineering, Editors: Chen and Westerberg. 594–600.
  16. Holland, S.T., Tapp, M., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B. (2003). Novel Separation System Design using Moving Triangles. Process Systems Engineering, Editors: Chen and Westerberg. 832–839.
  17. Vally, T., Hildebrandt, D., Rubin, D., Crowther, N. and Glasser, D. (2003). Application of Process Synthesis Methodology to Biomedical Engineering for the Development of Artificial Organs. Process Systems Engineering, Editors: Chen and Westerberg. 1216–1221.
  18. Ngigi, G., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. MaPS (Managed Process Synthesis) (2003). A methodology, integrated with the experimental programme, to develop a flow sheet. A first step. Process Systems Engineering, Editors: Chen and Westerberg. 1328–1334.
  19. Tapp, M., Holland, S.T., Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2003). Expanding the Operating Leaves in Distillation Column Sections by Distributed Feed Addition and Sidestream Withdrawal. Process Systems Engineering. Editors: Chen and Westerberg. 1050–1057.
  20. Kauchali, S., Hausberger, B., Seodigeng, T., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2004). A Comparison of Automated Techniques in Determining Candidate Attainable regions. A Case Study: The Water-Gas-Shift Reaction. European Symposium of Computer-Aided Process Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, May.
  21. Tapp, M., Holland, S.T., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2004). Make Distillation Boundaries Work for You! European Symposium of Computer-Aided Process Engineering , Lisbon, Portugal, May.
  22. Patel, B., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B. (2005). Overcoming the overall positive Free Energy of a process: Using the second law analysis to understand how this is achieved. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  23. Khumalo, N., Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2005). The Application of the Attainable Region Analysis to Comminution, 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  24. Mukoma, P., Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2005). The integration of Process Synthesis into an experimental program for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) Chemistry, 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  25. Modise, T., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Kauchali, S. and Tapp, M. (2005). Experimental Simulation of a Distillation Column Profile Maps using a Batch Apparatus. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  26. Seodigeng, T., Hausberger, B., Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2005). Attainable Regions Analysis for Processes with Mixing and Heat Transfer. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  27. Mulopo, J.L., Glasser, D., and Hildebrandt, D. (2005) Topological-based Analysis of Simple Distillation Accompanied by a Single Reaction. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  28. Vrey, M., Focke, W.W., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2005). Consistent Cubic Mixing Rules for Cubic EOS. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  29. Tapp, M. Holland, S.T., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2005). Is distributing the feed composition Xf over several trays a good idea? 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Glasgow, Scotland, July.
  30. Moodley, A., Kauchali, S.K., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2005). Debottle-necking reactor networks by attainable region analysis. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Applied Optimisation, Sharjah, UAE., February 1–3.
  31. Zhao, Yanjun, Mpela, A, Enache, D.I, Taylor, S.H., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Hutchings, G.J., Atkins, M.P. and Scurrell, M. (2005). Study of carbon monoxide hydrogenation over Au supported on zinc oxide catalysts. American Chemical Society, Division of Petroleum Chemistry, 50 (2), 206–207.
  32. Peters, M., Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2006). Separation of Methanol /Butene/MTBE using hybrids distillation–membrane processes, Presented at Distillation and Absorption, London,. IChemE Symposium Series No. 152, 152–161.
  33. Mpela, A., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Hutchings, G.J. and Scurrell, M.S. (2006). A Process synthesis approach to the low-pressure methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis over gold-based catalysts, 2006 World Gold Conference, Limerick, Ireland, 3–6 Sept.
  34. Wilson, C., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2006). Experimental column profile maps with varying delta points in a continuous column for the acetone methanol ethanol system. Presented at Distillation and Absorption, London,. IChemE Symposium Series No. 152, 111–121.
  35. Ngigi, G., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2006). Evaluation of phase equilibria for dilute mixtures for design purposes. Presented at Distillation and Absorption, London,. IChemE Symposium Series No. 152, 928–936.
  36. Modise, T., Hildebrandt, D., and Glasser, D. (2006). The experimental simulation of the saddle point region in a distillation column profile map by using a batch apparatus. Presented at Distillation and Absorption, London,. IChemE Symposium Series No. 152, 431–439.
  37. Mulopo, J.L., Glasser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2006). How to decide when and how much to use reactive distillation. Presented at Distillation and Absorption, London,. IChemE Symposium Series No. 152, 964–972.
  38. Peters, M., Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2006). Application of Membrane Residue Curve Maps to Continuous Hybrid Distillation-Membrane Processes. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, Poster PD013, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  39. Patel, B., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B. (2006). The synthesis of chemical processes from a mass, energy and entropy perspective. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, Poster PD012, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  40. Kalal, B., Gray, V.M., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2006). Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Bioreactor for the Conversion of Carbohydrates in Wastewater into Hydrogen. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, OraleS06, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  41. Tabrizi, M.T.F., Glasser, D., Hildebrandt, D. And Alton, A. (2006). Decolourization of Textile Dyestuffs with ozone in wastewater treatment. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, PosterEES04, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  42. Fasemore, O.A., Nyamboli, M., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Grey, V.M. (2006). Evaluation of the Nutrient Utilization Dynamics of Photorhabdus luminescens under Batch Culture. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, PosterPID01, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  43. Khumalo, N., Glasser, D., and Hildebrandt, D. (2006). Overview of the application of the attainable region analysis to comminution. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, OralPD013, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  44. Mukoma, P., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Coville, N., Jacobs, G. and Davis, B.H. (2006). Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis: A study of the effect of water on a cobalt catalyst. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, OralPDO17, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  45. Ngigi, G.K., Patel, B., Glassser, D. and Hildebrandt, D. (2006). Implications of the second law of thermodynamics on a reactive distillation process. Presented at SAIChE 2006, Durban, 20–22 September. SACEC 2006, Poster PD010, ISBN No. 1 86840 617 2.
  46. Peters, M. Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. (2007). Graphical Comparison of Coupled Membrane Columns with Differing Selectivity. ICSST 2007, Beijing, China, 14–16 October.
  47. Ntunka, M. . Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. (2007). Investigation of Distillation Processes using the Attainable Region Approach. ICSST 2007, Beijing, China, 14–16 October.
  48. Asiedu, N., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Hauberger, B. (2007). Batch Distillation Targets for minimum Energy Consumption. ICSST 2007, Beijing, China, 14–16 October.
  49. Abbas, R., Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. (2007). Column Profile Maps for a Dividing Wall Column Using a Non-Ideal System. ICSST 2007, Beijing, China, 14–16 October.
  50. Abbas, R., Kauchali, S., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. (2007). Experimental Validation of Column Profiles Maps using a Petlyuk Column Under Total Reflux Conditions for the Acetone/Methanol/ Ethanol System. ICSST 2007, Beijing, China, 14–16 October.
  51. Patel, B., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B. (2007). Coal-to Liquid: An environmental friend or foe? Proceedings of the 24th International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  52. Peters, M., Seedat, N., Hildebrandt, D. and Glasser, D. (2014) From concept to design: the use of membrane residue curve maps to characterize and design membrane processes, Distillation and Absorption. 2014.
  53. Hildebrandt, D. and Fox, J. (2014) Addressing a Design Defect: Process Targets and Flowsheets, FOCAPD 2014.
  54. Sempuga, B.C., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Seedat, M. (2014) Designing a Waste to Energy Plant for Informal Settlements. FOCAPD 2014.
  55. Liu,  X., Patel, B.,  and Hildebrandt, D. (2015)  Water free XTL processes: Is it possible and at what cost? 12th International symposium on Process Synthesis Engineering and 25th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2015

 

Professional positions, fellowships & awards

Positions held

1982–1984

Professional Assistant

Chamber of Mines Research Organisation

Environmental Engineering Laboratory

1984

Process Engineer

Sastech, SASOL

1985–1987

Senior Lecturer

Department of Metallurgy

Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education

1988–1998

Senior Lecturer

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of the Witwatersrand

June–Dec 1991

Assistant Professor

Princeton University

USA

1998–2004

Unilever Professor of Chemical Engineering

School of Process and Materials Engineering

University of the Witwatersrand

June 2002–2005

20% appointment: Professor of Process Synthesis

University of Twente

The Netherlands

2005–2013

Professor and Director of COMPS

School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

University of the Witwatersrand

June 2007–2013

 

SARChI Professor of Sustainable Process Engineering

University of the Witwatersrand

February 2013 -

Director MaPS, a Research Unit at UNISA

Professor of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil and Chemical Engineeing.

April 2017 -

Dsitingushed Professor, Herbei Univeristy of  Science and Technology

 

Awards

1996   

  • President’s Award, Foundation for Research and Development
  • Distinguished Researcher Award, University of the Witwatersrand

1997

  • Meiring Naude Medal, Royal Society of South Africa

2000

  • Bill Neale-May Gold Medal, South African Institute of Chemical Engineers

2002

  • Fellow of the Royal Society of South Africa
  • Vice Chancellor’s Researcher Award, University of the Witwatersrand

2003  

  • M. Joshua, co-supervised by D. Hildebrandt, D. Glasser, D. Rubin and N. Crowther, awarded NACI prize for the most innovative research by a postgraduate student at a South African university in 2003

2005

  • Awarded A rating by the NRF. This award recognizes that I am considered a world leader in my field of research by my peers
  • Elected to the Academy of Sciences of South Africa

2006

  • Elected to the Academy of Engineering of South Africa

2009     

 

  • Distinguished Woman Scientist Award of the DST South Africa
  • African Union Scientific Awards; 2009 Continental Awards for the category Basic Science, Technology and Innovation
  • Poster of the Year, Graduate Division, Optimization of Particle Breakage Operations with the Attainable Region, Matthew Metzger, Benjamin Glasser, Ngangezwe Khumalo, Diane Hildebrandt, Brendon Hausberger, David Glasser, International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering, Annual Meeting, San Diego, November 2009
  • The Academic and Non-Fiction Authors’ Association of South Africa (ANFASA) grant for preparing the book Membrane Process Design using Residue Curves

2010

  • Finalist in the 10XE Competition run by AIChE
  • Finalist in the NSTF Individuals Awards
  • Winner of the NSTF NGO Award
  • Winner of the ASSAf ‘Science-for Society’ Gold Medal Award

2017

  • Finalist NSTF  Research and Capacity Development  Category
  • Chosen as one of the 100 Foreign Experts to advise Government of Herbei

Other

Patents

  • Production of Synthesis Gas

 Name of inventor: Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D. and Hausberger, B.

Name of applicant: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Assignee: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Priority sate: 23.03.2005 (post-dated)

South African Patent Application No: 2009/00773

PCT application: Yes

National applications: Granted in Mongolia, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and OAPI.

  • Hydrogen Purification System

Name of inventor: Hildebrandt, D.,  van der Lingen, D. Steyn, J., Scurrel, M.S. and Pattrick,

Name of applicant: Mintech

Assignee: Mintech

Priority Date: 2007-03-07

  • Carbon Efficiencies in Hydrocarbon Production

 Name of inventor: Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Hausberger, B., and Patel, B.

Name of applicant: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Assignee: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Priority date: 24.04.2006

South African Patent Application No: 2008/09985

PCT application: Yes

National applications: Applied in 14 countries internationally

Granted: Nigeria Patent No: NG/C/654.

  • Preparation of Essential Oils

 Name of inventor: Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Kasumba, M. and van Wyk, R.

Name of applicant: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Assignee: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Priority date: 10.08.2006

South African Patent Application No: 2007/06619

PCT application: No

  • Carbon Absorbing System used in the production of Synthesis Gas

 Name of inventor: Fox, J., Hildebrandt, D., Glasser, D., Patel, B. Hausberger, B. and Sempuga, C.B. J.

Name of applicant: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Assignee: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

Priority date: 27.05.2009

PCT application: 2009/03631

  • Tubular Fixed Bed Reactor with Heat Pipe for Internal Heat Removal for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Name of inventor: Glasser, D., Lu, X. and Hildebrandt, D.

Name of applicant: University of South Africa

Assignee: University of South Africa

Provisional Patent Application No. 2014/08600.