Titles and Abstracts of Volume 7/1 (1994)
1 Word order variation of the verbal sentences in selected Gezer Amarna letters, pp. 1-15
AbstractThe reason for the correspondence between the vassals of Gezer and their sovereign, the pharaoh of Egypt, must be sought in the ongoing internal and external turmoil in Syria-Palestine during the late bronze age. These letters were written by the scribes in the Western Peripheral Akkadian (WPA) dialect with some Western Semitic (WS) trends.
The word order and the variation thereof in verbal sentences is one such trend. This word order variation was for the sake of emphasizing the appropriate element in a sentence. The use of certain (emphasizing) words such as anuma, µanita, inuma, allu and lu as well as constructions such as subject fronting and attributive relative clauses brought about a variation in word order.
However, even this recognizable word order and the variation thereof are not altogether consistent.
The investigation of word order and its variation in the verbal sentences of the Gezer Amarna letters show that these letters - even those dealing with the same subject matter - must have been written by different scribes. Apparently whenever a new vassal takes office in a vassal state, he appoints his own scribe (or scribes).
Prof. J P van der Westhuizen
2 The mother goddess and her games/gaming connection: an iconographic study, pp. 16-39
AbstractIt is not unknown for the mother goddess to be associated within a playing context in several cultures of the ancient Near East. However, the precise nature of this association is as yet unclear. This article proposes that the mother goddess may not only be connected within the gaming/games culture, but may also be related to a specific board game, namely the shield board game or the game of fifty-eight holes, also called the game of dogs and jackals. The evidence will be provided from iconographic material from all over the Ancient Near East. Reference will also be made to some textual evidence.
Prof P S (Fanie) Vermaak
3 The servant tradition of Isaiah in the Dead Sea scrolls, pp. 40-56
AbstractSince many copies of the book of Isaiah were found at Qumran, it would appear that this book was highly honoured by the Essenes who lived there. Yet in none of the sectarian writings is there either a quotation from or explicit reference to the Servant Songs in Isaiah. A careful examination of the linguistic and conceptual elements of these songs and certain sectarian writings reveals a correlation between the biblical figure and role of the Servant and the sectarian Teacher of Righteousness and priestly Messiah.
Prof. Otto Betz
4 Woman to Womyn: countering patriarchal stereotypes in the book of Ruth, pp. 57-78
AbstractWhen analysing the book of Ruth traditional scholarship has all too often depicted and extolled the characters of Ruth and Boaz in accordance with patriarchal gender stereotypes. The present study will attempt to overrun (in Derridean terms) or subvert such traditionally venerated interpretations by positing alternative translations for key verses in Ruth 2 and re-writing (again a Derridean concept) them into their immediate context. Finally it will suggest a possible means in which wo/men can empower themselves to overcome traditional gender-stereotyping with special reference to the example of Ruth as womyn.
Ms H Efthimiadis
5 The question of a tiqqun in Job 32:3
AbstractThis article considers the various logical possibilities created by the claim that a tiqqûne sôperîm, exists in Job 32:3. On the grounds of evidence provided by the versions, the meaning of the text and differences of opinion in the tiqqun tradition itself, it is concluded that the text does not contain a tiqqun. However, the important thing is to consider why it was felt necessary to claim the presence of a tiqqun. It is argued that tensions in the Masoretic text rather than concerns over the orthodoxy of formulations prompted the tradition of a tiqqun. Far from "protecting" God against blasphemy, the tiqqun tradition can be interpreted - at least in this case - as the critical use of tradition. As part of the introduction to the Elihu speeches, it invites a critical reading of the entire Elihu corpus within the Book of Job while being at the same time an example of critical reflection on the tradition within which it operates.
Professor J A Loader
6 Emphasis assimilation spread in Arabic and feature geometry of emphatic consonants
AbstractThis paper discusses the assimilation of emphasis-spread in Arabic, using a multitiered, non-linear autosegmental model. The discussion underscores the superiority of such a model over a traditional, linear approach. For Arabic, a modified version of feature-organization is adopted for consonants with secondary articulation, specifically back consonants in general and emphatic/pharyngealized consonants in particular. The feature Retracted Tongue Root [RTR] is adopted for emphatic consonants, /Ð / ¿ / õ and a. The examples discussed largely support the stipulations of the Obligatory Contour Principle and the notion of underspecification. It is shown that while a traditional, linear analysis of assimilatory spread of emphasis in Arabic violates the principles of the Obligatory Contour Principle, a non-linear, autosegmental approach is compatible with its constraints.
Radwan S. Mahadin and Yousef Bader