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Contents of the Corner People of Lady Selborne

FOREWORD xix
INTRODUCTION xxi
THE BRAND-NEW LADY SELBORNE

CHAPTER ONE: HAPPY BIRTHDAY, LADY SELBORNE! 3
White South Africa’s system of apartheid created and maintained a strategy of forced
removals of the majority black population as a means of dividing and controlling the
economic and political power of black South Africans. The policy of forced removals was
a pillar of the apartheid system, without which apartheid could not have become as fully
entrenched as it was in South African society, before the establishment of black majority
rule with the first multiracial elections in April 1994
Kristin Henrard Aspirant (1995)
With every African-owned dwelling razed to the ground, it was as though Lady Selborne
had never existed
Jane Carruthers (2000)
ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER TWO: ‘MIXED’ SUBURBS ARE DEATHBEDS OF EUROPEANS, SO BLACKS MUST MOVE OUT 15
Forced removals destroyed individuals and communities, and account for the physical and
emotional distance between South Africans today….The bitter taste of removals lingers
long, and extend backwards as well as forwards
Dispatch Online (November 5, 1999)
These considerations led to the destruction of District Six and its proclamation as a ‘white
area.’ As we all know, the same thing happened to such other settlements as Cato Manor
in Durban, Lady Selborne in Pretoria, and Sophiatown in Johannesburg
Ex-President Thabo Mbeki (February 13, 2004)
Bedrock of apartheid 15
Sophiatown 17
History of the dispossession 19
Compensation paid at the time of removal 20
Sophiatown land claim payments top R21m 20
District Six 20
Development plan 23
And the other was Lady Selborne 23

CHAPTER THREE: WHERE LADY SELBORNE ORIGINATED
Mr le Fleur did ask Lord Selborne’s permission to name the township referred to in your
letter ‘Lady Selborne’ and Lord Selborne has no objection to the name given it
D O Malcolm, private secretary of Lord Selborne (November 1905)
Origins and development of places like Lady Selborne – Nov 1905 25
The Lady gave us her name 29
Lady Selborne also gave her sons 30
Absence of Immorality Act 31

CHAPTER FOUR: STRUGGLE FOR MUNICIPAL FREEDOM
Many people seem to regard Lady Selborne as just another Native location, which it is
not. Lady Selborne is like any other white suburb in Pretoria, and native residents pay the
same rates, and also own freehold properties like whites
Reuben ‘Stompie’ Mokgoko (October 14, 1960)
Independent Lady Selborne 33
Spat with Innesdale municipality 34
Hercules municipality – another white council – another fight 36
But baas, we want to be part of you 40

CHAPTER FIVE: LADY SELBORNE IS THE ‘WORST SLUM’ IN SOUTH AFRICA
Conditions in the black townships and locations in Pretoria could generally be regarded
as being poor. They are overcrowded, the planning of the infrastructure and outlay was
poor, buildings were poorly constructed and unsanitary conditions existed in most areas.
This all contributed to a very poor picture of the living conditions of the black residents
of Pretoria
Margaret Malan (1996, p 72-3)
Most emphatically against the proposed extension and establishment of new native township
white Hercules township residents (1929)
No Lady Selborne extension in 1928 and 1940, but yes in 2002 44
Our wives and daughters are not safe from these jobless natives 52
Not in my back yard (NIMBY) 54
THE PEOPLE OF LADY SELBORNE

CHAPTER SIX: THE STREET ‘CORNER PEOPLE’ OF LADY SELBORNE
When I have control of native education I will reform it, so that the native will be taught
from childhood that equality with Europeans is not for him…he will know for what class
of higher education he is fitted and whether he will have a chance in life to use his knowledge.
What is the use of teaching the Bantu child what it cannot use in practice
Dr Hendrik Verwoerd (June 7, 1954)
The closure of Lady Selborne High School was a severe blow in as far as the Black child
was concerned. It left a void that has not been filled up today. Its contribution to the education
of Blacks in the country cannot be overemphasised. Former students of the school
have made their mark in all walks of life…It has to live in our memories till the end of
time
LSHS Alumni (1982)
Corner People 79
Language of the ‘clevers’ – ‘Die P en die M’ 80
Education 81
Education for Chinese, ‘coloureds’ and Indians 85
Lady Selborne High School 87
Prominent LSHS alumni 94
Little FLower Secondary School 97
Anti-Bantu Education Campaign 97

CHAPTER SEVEN: LACK OF SERVICES SHAPED DAILY LIFE
Primary cause of the trouble in Lady Selborne and other native locations is that the
majority of the natives prefer to listen to propagandists preaching communistic doctrine
than behaving as respectable and law-abiding citizens. These propagandists invariably
advocate the abolition of the pass laws and the securing of equal rights with Europeans
Senior SAP officer (August 27, 1945)
Dr Tsele was a political stormy petrel, but all who knew him respected his devotion to
the cause of freedom in the broad sense….politically he was a very active and a tireless
fighter for the freedom of his people
Contact Magazine (February 25, 1961)
Contributions of the Holy Cross and Tumelong missions 101
Tumelong mission 103
Non-existent basic essential services 105
Public transport 107
Homes of the residents 108
No police protection and crime 110
Problems with the unemployed, vagrants and juveniles 113
And we prayed for protection in our churches 115
How we played and relaxed – football and Cinderella games 116
Health – get well with the doctors 119

CHAPTER EIGHT: BUSTLING AND BUZZING COMMUNITY
What stuck in my mind was that he was introduced as the first African to have obtained
a Doctor of Divinity from the United States. It was an honour to know that Lady Selborne
had a man of such qualification. He was a local minister of the AME
Mr J Raphadi, former AME student (2004)
And we jived and jived 124
The Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers of Lady Selborne 126
Lady Selborne’s celebrities 127
Chinese street corner shops and fah-fee 131
African traders 134
Hotel 136
Beer hall 137
Monday to Friday, woza weekends and holidays 139
HOW THE PEOPLE WANTED TO LIVE

CHAPTER NINE: CIVIC AND COMMUNAL AFFAIRS
From the outset, the Lady Selborne residents were politically sophisticated and resisted
the ever-enveloping tentacles of state control over their daily lives. They fought determinedly
to retain their long-held status as landowners. It was a battle they eventually
lost. Having established an ‘African’ and communal identity, the inhabitants of Lady
Selborne were scattered in the early 1960’s – subdivision into various ‘ethnicities’ and
forcibly removed to a variety of remote soulless ‘homelands’, ‘Bantustans’ and semi-rural
townships
Jane Carruthers (2000)
Residents association and committees 144
Fine, you do not want an advisory board 149
Trade unionism in Lady Selborne 154

CHAPTER TEN: CHALLENGING THE SOCIO-POLITICAL SCENARIO
Determined not to give in to any intimidation, Mandela took the lead with Stephen Tefu,
a Communist Party trade unionist, signalling that they should walk slowly and deliberately,
not to run as commanded…This is not Johannesburg, this is not Pretoria, this is Robben
Island. I will not tolerate any insubordination here
Martin Meredith (1997)
South African Communist Party – Up the Reds 156
Stephen Sondag Tefu vs Robben Island 162
African National Congress – Mayibuye, iAfrika 163
Non-Africans’ role in the political struggle 167
Pan Africanist Congress – sons and daughters of Afrika Izwe Lethu 170
State of Emergency – English Lady Selborne nun fights back 176

CHAPTER ELEVEN: STRUGGLE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND FIGHT FOR DIGNITY
The police, both Europeans and Africans, hit the women indiscriminately on any part of
their bodies. They lined the three entrances to the hall, and in many cases women were
hit inside the Hall and again by other police when they did effect an exit
witness to the Bantu Hall police baton charge (1959)
Defiance Campaign – June 26, 1952 179
Bethal Potato Boycott – we do not eat dead people 181
Bus boycott – Azikwelwa! Asinamali! 182
Anti-Pass Campaign – burn the ‘dom passes’ 186
Anti-Republic campaigns 191
LAKUTSHONI’ILANGA (SUN SETTING)

CHAPTER TWELVE: GROUP AREAS ACT –
WHITE LAW INTENDED TO DISPOSSESS, DEHUMANISE AND DESTROY
One of the central characteristics of urban apartheid in South Africa over the nine decades
was the forced evictions of millions of black South Africans from their homes.
Within the urban areas, freehold settlements, such as Sophiatown, Lady Selbourne (sic),
Marabastad, District Six, and Cato manor, were destroyed, and black residents were
forced to move to ‘formal townships’ (where black people were forced to live) on the periphery
of the white cities and towns. This was legally sanctioned by statutes such as the
Black (Urban Areas) Act (1923) and the Group Areas Act (GAA) (1950)
Lauren Royston (2002)
Group Areas Act 41 of 1950 – Voertsek! Pack and go law 195
We-still-do-not-want-you-as-neighbours law 198
Let us kill Lady Selborne legally 198
June 6, 1958 – First Proclamation Number 150 200
October 20, 1961 – Final Proclamation 104 202
Who is next…? 204

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: THE LAST FIGHT OF THE OLD LADY
If you have objections against the inclusion of your property under the affected list, and
have grounds that it should not be done, you are requested to lodge such written objections
and stating to the Board on or before January 20, 1960
Group Areas Development Board (1960 )
In particular the white citizens of Pretoria who have been shown themselves completely
indifferent to the sufferings of others whenever the others are non-whites. The nonwhites
lack of vote has resulted in the continuous erosion of their rights by successive
white governments until today, after 51 years, they started with at the time of the Union
Mrs A Hains (Pretoria News, October 31, 1961)
If you have any objections… 207
Kicks of a dying horse 208
Forms of resistance to the forced removals 213
Lady Selborne ultimately lost legal fight 214

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: GOOD BYE, LOVELY OLD LADY
I deny that I left Selborne freely and voluntarily. I say that if I had agreed to move, it
would been unnecessarily for armed police to be present. I have continuously and permanently
and peacefully been a resident of Lady Selborne for more than 30 years
Property owner, Florence Senosha. (September 28, 1965)
When I think of the people we lived with I am filled with joy and happy memories. But
whenever I recall the way we packed our belongings in a rush and left, I became very bitter
for I know there will be never be another place like Lady Selborne. Nothing can bring
back the sweetness I experienced from that place. My heart has healed but the scars will
remain
Ray Baktawar (March 2, 2000)
Demolition of the first house 215
More dirty tricks by the CCP to get rid of its African workers 216
Lady Selborne is finally vanquished 222
Black apartheid after white apartheid – groot baas, klein baas 227
Bophuthatswana does not like non-Tswanas 229
Forced relocation – this is your house and home 231
I want to be educated 232
From Lady Selborne? Then you do not get our pension 232
People without homes 233
Apartheid in Mamelodi 234

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: COMPENSATION? THIS IS DAYLIGHT ROBBERY!
However, the sales by the owner to the city council were not ‘voluntary’, because they
were ‘enforced’ in that the seller was not selling on the free market and had no option
but to sell to the city council.
There are no records of compensation paid at the time of claimants who were expropriated.
There is only a single figure on the title deed for those who were obliged to sell their
properties. This figure is a composite amount, which does not give a breakdown between
site and improvements
Maureen Tong (2002)
Compensation! 235
It is not over yet until the Old Lady has sung 237
Give back our land 238
Restitution process 240

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: FROM THE LADY SELBORNE GHETTO TO THE MODERN LADY SELBORNE SUBURB
Lady Selborne was a very beautiful place. If it had been assisted and developed, it would
have been magnificent
Dr Dirk du Toit, Deputy Minister of Land Affairs (2002)
We request the reconsideration of the renaming of the new development from Suiderberg
Extension One to Lady Selborne Extension One. The reason being the negative connotation
that has already been linked to the name Lady Selborne due to the negative events that
have taken place in the past
white Suiderberg petitioner against new Lady Selborne (2002)
The ‘Baby come duze’ Old Lady 244

Street names of the new Lady Selborne 245
We still do not want you as our neighbours 247
Claimants’ frustration with black and white officialdom 250
Conclusion 253
Bibliography 256
Index 260